Long duration, low intensity cardio. High intensity interval training
(HIIT). Thirty to sixty minutes of moderate intensity work.

With all the options and opinions out there, is it any wonder that people
are confused as to how they should incorporate cardio into their workouts?

Let me begin by saying that I hate the word cardio. Cardio sounds
like something you do for your heart, not something you do to get lean.
After all, the most important thing in life is getting uber jacked, right?

Okay I'm kidding. But only a little!

While "energy system training" (EST) may not sound as mainstream as "cardio" does,
it has a cooler ring to it. If you tell people you have an intense EST
workout, you just sound like you know what you're doing!

Let's look at the pros and cons of each type of EST available to us,
along with ways to incorporate each to develop a superior fat burning

But first, a quick primer to get you up to speed.

The Cardio Continuum

If you recall from several of my articles, I've put the following continuum
into the mix:

Cardio Conundrum

Neural Metabolic

On the left hand side of the continuum we have training methods that
are intensive with regards to the nervous system. These types of training
methods are generally harder overall on the body and require greater
recovery time.

On the right side of the equation, we have training methods that are
more intensive with regards to the metabolic system. These types of methods
are generally less stressful to the body and require less time to recovery

When examining energy system training, many of the same general rules
apply. In this case, the continuum may look something like this:

Cardio Conundrum

Interval Training Long Duration, Low Intensity

Used in more practical setting, the left side of the continuum could
be someone who's performing sprints. On the right side of the continuum
are the people who are plodding away for hours on end on the recumbent

As a general rule the methods on the left side increase training intensity,
and therefore take longer to recover from between workouts. In contrast,
the methods on the right side are lower intensity in nature, and can
be performed more often.

Once you understand this continuum, you'll see that all training mediums
fall somewhere along it. The goal is to determine not only which is more
beneficial for you, but how to employ the cardio into overall training
program to get maximal results.

Rather than droning on and on with endless theory, let's focus on the
practical side of the equation — how you can best utilize energy
system training to help you shed body fat and get lean.

With that being said, I'm not even going to touch on low intensity,
long duration cardio. While there are certain populations and instances
where it may be appropriate, the bottom line is that for most, it's a

Yes, it's true that low intensity workouts will burn the greatest percentage
of fat; but that's only because the intensity is so low! Following this
line of thinking, lying on your couch is downright thermogenic! Instead
of focusing solely on burning fat, I'd rather have someone work hard,
burn a ton of calories, and let the chips fall where they may.

Let's examine what I consider to be the three biggest exercise tools
we have at our disposal: Strength training, interval training, and steady
state work.

Strength Training


As I'm writing this, I'm going to assume you're following a strength
training program similar to the one I outlined here.
If you're not, or if you haven't read the article first, definitely do
that before moving on.


An intelligently designed weight training regimen should be the cornerstone
of your fat loss program. A smart training program will not only crank
up your metabolism within the workout, but aid you in building muscle
to help you burn more fat outside of the workout, as well.

Cardio Conundrum

Molly knows all about the positive effects of lifting heavy; so should

Action Item: After you've designed your strength training program,
commit to performing it at least two to three times per week, with at
least one day of rest in between.

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

HIIT, also known as interval training, is currently the hot topic when
it comes to fat loss workouts — and for good reason. Intervals
are in many ways superior to traditional steady-state training with regards
to fat loss.

Due to the intensity of the workouts, chances are you're going to be
burning a ton of calories when you perform interval training. Couple
that with the fact that your metabolism stays elevated for quite some
time after you're done training, and you have a very potent fat burning

Unfortunately, intervals aren't for everyone, especially in the beginning.
I would never have someone who's one hundred pounds overweight performing
sprints or other high-impact activities.

However, there are tons of great options you can incorporate that will
totally kick your butt! Here are a few ideas:

Kettlebell/Dumbbell Swings on the Minute

I got this from strength coach and good friend Geoff Neupert. Take a
kettlebell, and when the second hand on a clock gets to
"12", perform 10 swings. When you're done, you get the rest of the minute
to rest. When the clock gets back to the "12", you've got 10 more swings.

Start off for 5 minutes and work your way up to 10. From there, you
can increase the number of swings on the minute, which will alter the
work to rest ratio.

Cardio Conundrum

Caroline Radway, UK-Based Personal Trainer

Airdyne Bike

People scoff at the Airdyne when they come into our gym, but they don't
laugh at it when they're done!

Again, a work to rest ratio of 1 to 3 is the standard starting point,
with people either going 20 on, 60 off or 30 on, 90 off. After a full-bore
workout, no one wants to see the Airdyne!

Hopefully you ladies get the point here. It doesn't matter what you
do — kettlebell swings, bike or treadmill sprints, tire flips,
or hitting the heavy bag. The key is it must be intense, and it
must be brief.

Action Item: Following your strength training workouts, plan
on incorporating several rounds of intervals into your programming. On
the low end I'd start with 3 rounds, and on the high-end you can work
up to 6 or 8. Another good rule of thumb is to begin with a 1:3 work:rest
ratio, and over time decrease that to 1:2.

Moderate Intensity, Steady-State Work

Moderate intensity steady-state work has been thrown under the bus lately,
and I'm not exactly sure why. Sure, it's not as effective as intervals
at burning body fat, but it still has its role.

First off, you simply can't perform intervals every day. You will either
burn out, get injured, or both. Moderate steady-state work, however,
can be performed almost daily with minimal repercussions (outside of
an overuse injury if you do the same thing time and again).

As well, it doesn't take nearly as much "mental currency" to perform
a steady state workout. Quite simply, it's not as hard as hitting the
iron or enduring an intense interval workout!

In the case of steady state work, we need to work at a relatively good
intensity without killing ourselves. If you're gasping for breath, can't
talk, and feel like you're about to have a heart attack, you're working
too hard! A good way to think about this is the difference between breathing
heavy and breathing hard.

The biggest issue most people have with steady-state work is that it
gets boring. If this is the case with you, mix it up! You can jog, ride
a bike, swim, and use a stairclimber or a rowing machine.

The limiting factor here is really just your imagination. If nothing
else, throw your iPod on and listen to a good, informative podcast while
training. You'll get smarter and the time will go by faster to boot!

Action Item: Try and get a minimum of at least one steady state
workout in per week on non-strength/interval days. Two is even better,
if you can swing it.

While three may be "ideal" with regards to shedding body fat and burning
calories, it can also be mentally draining getting into the gym six times
per week. If your only goal is to get uber lean with quickness, though,
this will serve you well.

Start with a minimum of twenty to thirty minutes and work up to sixty
as your conditioning improves.

Bringing It All Together

Over the past two articles we've discussed both the strength training
and cardio sides of the equation. Below is a sample program for someone
who needs help getting started.

I like this program set-up because it allows someone plenty of time
to train during the week, while giving them a mental break from the gym
on the weekend. It's intense, but not so intense that they risk burning
out or totally hating the gym!

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Workout A
Steady State - Bike Workout B
Steady State - Jog Workout A
Off Off

Workout A

Dynamic Warm-up

1A) Squats, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
1B) Bench Press, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
2A) RDL's, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
2B) Pull-ups, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
3A) Shoulder I, T, Y, 2x8 each, 30 seconds
3B) DB Curls, 2x10, 30 seconds rest
3C) Dead Bugs, 2x12, 30 seconds rest
KB Swings on the Minute, 10 swings
for 5 minutes

Workout B

1A) Deadlifts, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
1B) DB Rows, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
2A) DB Lunges, 3x10, 90 seconds rest
2B) DB Overhead Press, 3x10, 90 seconds
3A) DB External Rotation, 2x12, 30 seconds rest
3B) Prone Scaptions,  2x12,
30 seconds rest
3B) Ab Wheel Rollouts, 2x8-10, 30 seconds rest
Airdyne Sprints, 20 on, 60
off, 3 rounds

Cardio Conundrum


I hope this article has shed some light on which energy system training
methods are the most effective for getting super lean. While both intervals
and steady state types of cardio have their pros and cons, the best game
plan is to incorporate both in a holistic and balanced training program.

Now get off your butt, get to the gym, and start shedding some body