Alan Cosgrove once said that although methods are many,
principles are few. What an insightful statement. What I see,
however, is that these “methods’ are so varied that they’re
violating key fundamental principles.
The result is that you the trainee aren’t getting results
from your gym time by following questionable methods that fly in
the face of real world principles.
This is the frustrating thing for me. I train people in the real world. I’m not sure what’s being taught at
certification courses these days, but what is interpreted as
“principles” is faulty at best. In this article I want to use a
real world example for those of you training to gain size, muscle,
and thickness, and have the mistaken belief that this is
accomplished with “max weights.” This is another term I have
trouble with as it’s quite misleading as we will see.
The other day I received an E-mail from a client, who sounded a
little confused. It seems that a so-called “personal trainer”
walked by while my client was training, and offered this brilliant
advice: “You should lighten the load substantially, and do 4-4-1
tempo, to get more out of the set!”
A personal trainer helps a trainee get more out of a
Say what? My client was confused because I had advised to
lift explosively, regardless of rep range. So who was right?
Let’s take a look. If I lift 100 pounds for 5 reps, and you lift
100 pounds for 5 reps; I do 5 reps in about 5 seconds, you use the
tempo above and take about 30 seconds to lift it. We both performed
the same amount of work. But here’s a question
for you: whose set required more power? Whose set placed a
higher metabolic demand on his body? The answer should be obvious.
My set, of course.
Power, folks, is a rudimentary principle expressed in many ways,
but is essential to training for size, strength, thickness, etc.
The simple basic premise is that it takes more power to move
a weight in one second than it does to move it in two seconds. Over the course of a workout this is seen as an expression
of more work in the same amount of time, or the same amount of work in less time. These are all
expressions of the principle of power. You’ll notice, of course,
that the “method” of tempo suggested above by the moron “personal
trainer” violates this principle.
Next question. In the above example which one of us achieved the
most overload? The answer is that it’s a trick question. If that
100 pounds is a weight we are used to performing, then neitherof us achieved overload for that set. Therefore, the
advice of lightening a load you can already do explosively and take
4 times as long to do it, is faulty logic that does not follow
basic principles. It means negating max load, and therefore
negating the overload principle in general. This is just one
example of “methods” being not only many, but also
Now if you follow this so far, then you may be thinking that
maximum load is therefore the way to abide by the Overload
Principle. Well yes, but only if you understand max load. I want
you to read the next sentence a few times and let it sink in before
Max load is not the same thing as max weight.
Why don’t most people get this? I blame the industry for
detailing external cues as the be all and end all of performance.
How much you “can” lift is not the deciding factor. The deciding
factor is how much stress a muscle endures as overload. These are
entirely different things, as I’ll explain below with a real-world
First let’s understand these basic principles more clearly.
Power is an expression of force with speed. There are a few types.
We’re concerned here with explosive power, and the power
Explosive power can be defined as simply as force over time. It
can also be defined as the time it takes to get to max force
output. Or it can be expressed as recruiting fibers for strength
performance in a context of speed. So simple explosive power is
expressed as F/t. Force is defined as load or strength within this
context. This is where all the confusion on the gym floor begins.
Inexperienced trainers and trainees seem to think that the above
solution means to use a “max load” as in weight, and be explosive.
This is untrue for forcing an adaptive response. The example below
illustrates my point and I’m sure if you look around your gym you
will see many people making this same mistake.
At one of my former gyms where I was training I happened to be
in close proximity to one of the gym’s trainers and his client. I
had seen them before so I watched as they repeated a familiar
scenario. It was obviously deadlift day for them. Because I was
training in the same area I witnessed their classic training
The trainee was a kid of average size. I watched as he did a
warm up set (I presume) at 225 for 10 reps, and at a fairly
explosive speed. I then watched him do a set of 5 reps at 325,
still trying to be explosive, but the bar was moving a little more
slowly regardless of intent.
Next, disaster. They moved the weight up to 365 pounds and
rested a long time, then after a lot of yelling and screaming he
performed two very slow reps that were agonizing to watch. Everyone
yelled and cheered and high fived each other.
Finally they put four plates on the bar for 405 pounds. He did
one very difficult rep that seemed to take forever. The two of them
were screaming and a few on-lookers seemed impressed by the effort.
After he put the weight down the trainer wanted to make sure
everyone saw that and actually came up to me and said, “Did you see
my guy pull 4 plates? Isn’t that great?”
I said to him, “Well that depends on what your purpose was for
He said, “Oh, we’re training for size and thickness.”
I shrugged. “Then you just wasted about 30 minutes of gym time!”
He huffed at me, “Well, that’s youropinion!”
I replied, “No, it’s a matter of fact, if you understand
He just wouldn’t get it. But for those of you with open minds,
let me explain why this type of ego training is a waste of time for
adaptive response. First let’s examine the power equation, shall
we? Most of you probably know it: power is equal to force times distance, divided by time.
If we examine the above example with that formula principle,
then we will see what a waste of time his “max load” sets were. For
the sake of argument, let’s say that for this guy, the distance of
his deadlift from floor to lockout was 2 feet. If we address the
loads used over that distance, and the time it took to deliver
them, we can gain an understanding of the power equation, and of
why this poor sod did indeed waste a considerable amount of gym
At 225 pounds, he lifted that weight 2 feet, and he did it
explosively in under a second, let’s say eight-tenths of a second.
Therefore for that set he lifted 225 x 2 divided by .8 seconds. The
total units of power produced in one rep were 562.5.
For the next set, he lifted 325 pounds x 5 reps. As I said, the
weight moved a little slower but still with ample explosive power.
So let’s say each rep took a full second. Therefore we have 325 x 2
feet divided by 1 second. This gives us a total power production
figure of 650. At this point, looking at the numbers, it seems his
progressive overload is right in line with an adaptive response
(we’ll come back to that in a second).
His next set was 365 pounds, and as I said, there was a
noticeable slowdown in how long it took him to hoist that weight.
It took at least twice as long each rep as the previous set. We’ll
call it two seconds, and crunch the numbers. He lifted 365 x 2
feet, but it took two seconds, so we divide that by 2. The total
units of power produced by this lift was 365. Strange but true: his
max load was increased, but his power output, or overload
response, decreased substantially.
Finally, he performed his last set at 405 for one max rep. This
rep took forever, and in my mind I did a slow three count while
watching him. So the numbers are: 405 x 2 feet, divided by 3
seconds (force times distance divided by time). His final number
here on his “max load” set was actually only 270 total units of
power! How can thisbe? His max single set of 405 elicited
even less of an adaptive response than did his warm up set at
Take a look at this graph of the TEP of Power.
The vertical axis of the graph is the amount of force used, and
the horizontal axis is the time expression.
As you can see by graphing this performance, his actual peak
performance sets were way before his max load sets. Now lets go
back and look at those again and reassess, considering
In set one at 225 pounds, he performed ten reps. We’ll take his
562 units of power generated, then multiply it by 10 reps, and we
get 5,620 units of power demanded during that set.
At set two we calculated that he generated 650 units of power
per rep. He did that set for five reps so if we multiply the 650 x
5 we see that the total units of power demanded were
His next set was 365 pounds, and we calculated that the total
units of power were the same: 365. Yet even with this max load he
lifted only two reps. Therefore his total units of power produced
is 365 x 2 or a measly 730 total units of power demanded. So his
“max weight” sets are starting to show more ego training than
Finally his last set was 405 pounds for one long rep. We already
showed the total units of power to be a rather pathetic 270. And
when we multiply that by his one rep, we of course get the same
A single slow rep with 405 is a lot less demanding than 10
explosive reps with 225.
So to sum it up, if we follow the training principle of power,
his max load set was not the heaviest sets in terms of load
on the bar. His max load set was actually his lightest set.
225 pounds yielded 5620 total units of power
325 pounds yielded 3250 total units of power
365 pounds yielded 730 total units of power
405 pounds yielded a paltry 270 units of power
The lessons learned here are great. First, we learned that max
loads have little to do with how much weight is on the bar. Max
loads are relative only to performance of those loads.
Next, we learned that for this particular case the trainee would
have been better off doing all of his sets somewhere between 225
and 325 pounds. Sets done in that rep range would have elicited a
greater adaptive demand and response.
Within that context is where program design expertise takes
over. If his goal is size and thickness (as his “trainer” stated),
then more sets would be cycled through a program toward the heavier
end of the proper rep range, but still dropping down for some
explosive work near the lower end of the rep range. Again, this
would all take place over the time of a properly designed
If we go back to the graph, we can see that anything to the left
of the 225 pound sets would be too little overload, as in not
enough weight. This illustrates the fault with slow tempos, which
no one in their right mind would use for an explosive lift to begin
But the biggest lesson is that to the rightof the 325
pound set, there is not nearly enough duration of overload in order to accomplish an adaptive response.
All of this brings in line the whole idea of what “max loads”
even means. I’ll say it one last time, and hope it sinks in.
The amount of weight on the bar is only relative information.
It’s what you do with that bar that
It’s amazing to me how many bright people who know the
principles intellectually, do not follow them in their “methods.”
Maximum strength training methods do not lead to maximum
size, strength, or thickness. (See also Behm 1996)
What this above example illustrates is the Training Efficiency
Percentage of Power (TEP). The definition of Training Efficiency
Percentage is the “number of reps in a given set of performance,
that force an adaptive response.” If we look at the above graph, it
should be obvious that all training loads should be somewhere
between 55% and 85% of maximum performance loads in order to
produce an adaptive response.
Therefore, how much you can lift is not very significant
in terms of how much you should lift within a course of
programmed training. Of course there is much more to this that can
make the above equation even more or less effective depending on
Innervation Training protocol addresses in more depth such
performance parameters. Toward the Innervation Training
“Principles” it’s important to also remember “there is
differential innervation of specific muscles or parts of muscles in
different or specific ranges and planes of motion.” This
contributes to another principle that is known as the Total
Activation Potential (TAP), which I will address in another
So we’re all clear on what this means in terms of load
selection, I ought to point out what it means in terms of cadence
as well. There are only two relevant cadences in bodybuilding
training: explosive, and continuous tension. I will show how these
two cadences play out in a follow up article on deltoid training.
Sequencing of exercises becomes paramount to training if you
understand what max load training really is, as well as in relation
to explosive training and innervation training, in terms of
selected ranges and planes of motion.
I hope this article drives home the point that although methods
may be many, if they don’t adhere to solid principles, then much
can be lost to the trainee.