Between the articles I've written, the articles I've contributed
to, and a handful of "Cool Tips," I'm responsible for over
130 pieces of information on Testosterone. Given all the writing that I've
done, you'd think by now I'd pretty much covered everything.


In fact, I haven't even scratched the surface of what I hoped to cover
at this stage in the game, but I've got no one to blame except myself.
You see, when I think a concept hasn't been explored to a great extent,
I feel the need to keep talking about it. (Hence, the plethora of articles
on the importance of lifting with top speed.)

However, someone either agrees with what you're saying and understands
it or doesn't agree and doesn't understand it. To keep talking
about the same topics ad nauseam is a lesson in futility. Make a point, make
it clear, and move on.

I came to that realization long ago (even though I haven't always followed
it), but it got me thinking about what topic I wanted to cover in this article.
I decided I would focus on one component of building a better body that I
haven't really touched on in the past, a topic that is absolutely essential to

Not all of the following information is practical, in its strictest definition.
Some are basically concepts that will help you reach your goals quicker and
stay healthy. By doing so you'll have the information you need to build
a better body.

Let's get started with one of the most important and least discussed
components of your body: fascia.

Holding It All Together

Fascia is connective tissue that surrounds all of the structures in your
body, from head to toe. There are three primary types of fascia: superficial,
visceral, and deep. Superficial fascia surrounds areas such as your face,
neck, and sternum. Visceral fascia, as the name implies, suspends the organs
in your abdominal cavity.

But deep fascia is where this topic gets interesting. Deep fascia is tough,
fibrous connective tissue that surrounds your muscles. It contains many sensory
receptors that communicate pain, proprioception, and various other feedback
mechanisms to your brain. And just like your muscles, deep fascia can contract
and relax.

According to structural integration expert, Tom Myers, there are five major
fascial chains.

Superficial back line – starts at
the bottom of the feet and continues up and over the top of the head and
ends at the brow ridge.

Superficial front line – starts on
the top of the feet at the toes and ends behind the ear at the mastoid process.

Lateral line – runs along the lateral portion of the lower body,
hips, and obliques.

Spiral line – wraps from side to side along the body.

Deep front line – runs deep along the spine and jaw.

You don't need to worry about all of the different types of fascial
lines. My point in outlining the five major chains is for you to understand
that every muscle in your body is wrapped in multiple directions by fascia.

It's imperative that you respect the deep fascia that surrounds your
muscles. If it's too stiff, it can impair muscle function. Think of
how Chinese women used to bind their feet to limit foot growth. Fascia can
have a similar effect on muscles. If the deep fascia that surrounds your
muscles is too tight, it can restrict your muscle growth and impair muscle
function and performance.

Beyond Big Muscles

I wanted to tackle the relationship between deep fascia and muscle growth
first. I know you're probably reading this article because you want
bigger, stronger, faster muscles, but in order to do that you need to understand
more than just motor unit recruitment – if you want to get the best
results as quickly as possible.

In pursuit of bigger muscles you've got to respect the structures that
surround and support your muscles and joints. If you do, you'll get
faster results, and you'll enjoy a lifetime of lifting. That's
because unhealthy fascia can impede your ability to perform well in the gym.

If you've ever had foot problems, you might've been diagnosed
with something called plantar fasciitis. This is an inflammation of
the fascia on the bottom of your feet, often caused by excessive foot pronation.
It can be painful, not to mention a nuisance. You might think that inflamed
fascia on the bottom of your feet won't lead to other problems, but
you'd be wrong.

The red area is the fascia.

When I talk about fascia, and its components, it must be understood that
these aren't separate, independent parts. Indeed, fascia is an integrated
and interconnected band of connective tissue that runs from the bottom of
your feet to your head!

When any area of this fascia in between your feet and head gets irritated
and loses its functional capacity, your body must compensate. Generally,
irritated fascia stiffens. This results in a
"pull" across other areas of your body. Think of a fully inflated
balloon. If you press your finger into the balloon (sitffen that area) the
rest of the balloon must stretch and pull to compensate for your finger indention.

If you have doubts that fascia is continuous across your body, try this
simple procedure popularized by Tom Myers.

First, from a standing position, try to touch your toes with your back flat
and legs straight. Make a note of how far down you can reach and how intense
the stretch is on your hamstrings.

Next, from a standing position, take a tennis ball and place it under the
arch of your right foot. Place a good amount of weight on the tennis ball,
but not so much that you lose your balance or feel intense pain. Now roll
the tennis ball around under your right foot, making sure to hit all areas
from inside to outside and front to back. You should feel pressure and a
little discomfort on the bottom of your foot, but not intense pain. Do this
for 30 seconds before switching to the left foot and following the same procedure.

Just one will do.

Repeat the standing toe touch. You'll notice two things. First, you'll
be able to immediately reach closer to your toes (or beyond your toes, depending
on your initial range of motion). Second, you'll feel less of a "pull" in
your hamstrings.

Why? Because the connective tissue on the bottom of your feet is contiguous
with your hamstrings. This connective tissue doesn't stop at the hamstrings,
though. It continues through all of the muscles that run up and over the
top of your head to your brow line!

The tennis ball drill will loosen your hamstrings, but it can also affect
many other muscles such as your calves, glutes, and spinal erectors. By rolling
the tennis ball underneath your feet you've sent a signal to your fascia
to relax, thus freeing up all of your muscles from head to toe. This, in
turn, allows you to achieve a greater range of motion for the toe touch test.

The Other Kind of Joint

As Mike Boyles has mentioned in his articles, the human body is a series
of joints stacked on top of each other. Anytime there's dysfunction
there must be compensation.

Imagine you're driving down the road and you have a stiff neck. You
want to turn your head and look over your shoulder before changing lanes.
What happens when you have a stiff neck? You end up twisting your torso to
compensate for the lack of mobility in your neck. This is how joint compensation
works. When one joint can't move freely, other joints have to pick up
the slack. When a joint is forced to do extra work, you set that joint up
for injury.

Think about the ankle joint. When you have plantar faciitis and excessive
foot pronation, another joint must compensate – the knee joint that's
directly above it. The knee joint is being pulled inward to compensate for
the excessive foot pronation.

Since the knee joint has altered its natural position, the hip must follow
(you can't move your leg without it affecting your hip) and shift its
position. Importantly, the hip joint is linked with the shoulders because
of your fascial line. So now that your hip has shifted, the opposite shoulder
must compensate by shifting, too. Depending on the position of the hip, your
shoulder might compensate by moving more anterior – thus throwing your
scapula out of its ideal placement and shortening the muscles on the front
of your shoulder.

In essence, you could say that plantar faciitis can cause shoulder problems.
But the distance can travel even further. Indeed, research has demonstrated
a direct link between a fallen arch and TMJ in your jaw!(1)

Now are you beginning to understand the importance of tissue health,
mobility, and proper posture? You must keep your fascia as healthy as possible
by performing mobility and flexibility drills, along with maintaining proper
posture and balancing out the exercises that train your entire body.

And this is where it's appropriate to bring up mobility and flexibility

Mobility and Flexibility: Are They Synonymous?

It's safe to assume that you've heard the term
"flexibility," and thanks to the writings of Cressey, Robertson,
Hartman, and Boyle, you're familiar with
"mobility." Over the past few years, mobility training has been
the focus of many fitness coaches and physical rehabilitation specialists.

What are flexibility and mobility, anyway?

Flexible and mobile.

Imagine you're lying on your back with your legs straight. If you just
lie there and let a physical therapist lift your leg up as high as possible
he'd be testing your passive range of motion. This is a test of flexibility – the
ability for your muscles to passively lengthen.

When you stand up and mimic the same test by pulling your leg up as high
as possible, you're testing mobility. Think of mobility as active flexibility.
After all, the definition of mobility is "the ability to move freely." So
flexibility and mobility are not synonymous terms. They have been in the
past, but I think it's an over simplification.

Is one better than the other? No. Just like you need to lift heavy, medium,
and light weights to train your muscles to work for different periods of
time and at different speeds, flexibility and mobility training serve different
purposes, too.

It's common practice to stretch your muscles before you train. I'm
not talking about "warming-up" by jogging or jumping rope, I'm
talking about passively stretching. You've probably heard that stretching
prevents injuries by
"preparing" your muscles for hard work. Intuitively, it makes sense,
but research is mounting to refute the notion that stretching before a workout
provides any real benefit. In fact, passive stretching before a workout might
impede your performance.

Flexibility training, or passive stretching, is relaxing to your muscles.
That's great for recovery, but it's also relaxing to your nervous
system. For example, you'll temporarily lose strength in your hamstrings
if you passively stretch them by weakening the signal between your nerve
endings and muscles.

You of course know that you want the nervous system to work at its peak
while you're training in order to recruit as many motor units as possible.
By reducing the nervous system transmission between your motor neurons and
muscles, you won't be able to produce as much force as if you skipped
the passive stretching.

After a workout, however, it's beneficial to relax your muscles and
nervous system since it was revved up during your workout. When your nervous
system is stimulated, it's very difficult, if not impossible, to get
your muscles to the point of relaxation that's necessary for recovery.

This is why you typically get a stiff neck when you're stressed. Therefore,
I recommend flexibility training, or passive stretching, at the end of your
workouts for two reasons. First, it'll help your muscles and nerves
relax. Second, it's a time when a temporary loss in strength isn't
detrimental to your performance.

Mobility training, if performed correctly, can enhance your nervous system
and prepare your joints for a workout. When you actively move your muscles
through a full range of motion, you stimulate the motor nerves that innervate
your muscles, thus allowing you to recruit more motor units.

If you've ever watched Olympic swimmers right before they dive into
the water for a race you'll notice that they do big, fast arm circles
to prepare their shoulders. This is a smart move. By actively moving their
shoulder joints through a full range of motion, they're enhancing the
neural drive to their muscles and stirring up synovial fluid that reduces
joint friction.

This information doesn't end with the nervous system and joint fluid,
though. Remember that fascia that I was referring to? Well, flexibility and
mobility training help keep that fascia supple. By doing so, you'll
receive three big benefits. First, you'll be able to train your exercises
through a greater range of motion.

Second, you'll potentially reduce your risk for joint injuries. When
one area of your body is stiff and restricted, another area has to compensate.
Compensation is a big set-up for injury since it makes a specific area function
differently than it was designed.

Third, you'll give your muscles room to grow by
"unbinding" them.

What Next?

As I mentioned in the beginning of this article, not all of the aforementioned
information is practical. This is an article that's intended to help
you understand "why" you perform mobility and flexibility instead
of "how."

For the "how" part, you have a few options. For the mobility exercises
that you should perform before your workouts, I highly recommend the Magnificent
and Inside-Out DVDs that outline excellent lower- and
upper-body mobility drills, respectively.


You might not think that fascia is very sexy or exciting, but damn it, it
should be. Please put this information to good use and you'll keep your
money in your pocket instead of contributing to a physical therapist's
retirement fund.